Reef Rehabilitation Manual

Case studies

Example materials from Chapter 7 Evaluating costs of restoration 

References

Edwards, A.J. (ed.) (2010). Reef Rehabilitation Manual. Coral Reef Targeted Research & Capacity Building for Management Program: St Lucia, Australia. ii + 166 pp.

Chapter 1. Objectives of this manual

A great source of relevant publications is: ReefBase.

  1. Edwards, A.J. and Gomez, E.D. (2007) Reef Restoration Concepts and Guidelines: making sensible management choices in the face of uncertainty. Coral Reef Targeted Research & Capacity Building for Management Program, St Lucia, Australia. iv + 38 pp. ISBN 978-1-921317-00-2
  2. Maragos, J.E. (1974) Coral transplantation: a method to create, preserve and manage coral reefs. Sea Grant Advisory Report UNIHI-SEAGRANT-AR-74-03, CORMAR-14, 30 pp.
  3. Miller, S.L., McFall, G.B. and Hulbert, A.W. (1993) Guidelines and recommendations for coral reef restoration in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. National Undersea Research Center, University of North Carolina, at Wilmington. 38 pp.
  4. Harriott, V.J. and Fisk, D.A. (1995) Accelerated regeneration of hard corals: a manual for coral reef users and managers. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Technical Memorandum: 16, 42 pp.
  5. Heeger, T. and Sotto, F. (eds). (2000) Coral Farming: A Tool for Reef Rehabilitation and Community Ecotourism. German Ministry of Environment (BMU), German Technical Cooperation and Tropical Ecology program (GTZ-TÖB), Philippines. 94 pp.
  6. Clark, S. (2002) Ch. 8. Coral reefs. Pp. 171-196 in Perrow, M.R. and Davy A.J. (eds.) Handbook of Ecological restoration. Volume 2. Restoration in Practice. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 599 pp.
  7. Job, S., Schrimm, M. and Morancy, R. (2003) Reef Restoration: Practical guide for management and decision-making. Carex Environnement, Ministère de l’Écologie et du Développement Durable, IFRECOR. 32 pp.
  8. Omori, M. and Fujiwara, S. (eds). (2004) Manual for restoration and remediation of coral reefs. Nature Conservation Bureau, Ministry of Environment, Japan. 84 pp.
  9. Precht, W.F. (ed.) (2006) Coral Reef Restoration Handbook. CRC Press, Boca Raton. 363 pp.
  10. Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Mumby, P.J., Hooten, A.J., Steneck, R.S., Greenfield, P., Gomez, E., Harvell, D.R., Sale, P.F., Edwards, A.J., Caldeira, K., Knowlton, N., Eakin, C.M., Iglesias-Prieto, R., Muthinga, N., Bradbury, R.H., Dubi, A. and Hatziolos, M.E. (2007) Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification. Science, 318, 1737-1742.
  11. Reid, C., Marshall, J., Logan, D. and Kleine, D. (2009) Coral Reefs and Climate Change. The Guide for Education and Awareness. CoralWatch, University of Queensland, Brisbane. 256 pp.
  12. Young, T.P. (2000) Restoration ecology and conservation biology. Biological Conservation, 92, 73-83.
  13. Society for Ecological Restoration International Science & Policy Working Group. (2004) The SER International Primer on Ecological Restoration. www.ser.org & Tucson: Society for Ecological Restoration International. 13 pp.
  14. Spalding, M.D. and Grenfell, A.M. (1997) New estimates of global and regional coral reef areas. Coral Reefs, 16, 225-230.
  15. Wilkinson, C. (2008) Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 2008. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network and Reef and Rainforest Centre, Townsville, Australia, 296 pp.
  16. Rinkevich, B. (2008) Management of coral reefs: We have gone wrong when neglecting active reef restoration. Marine Pollution Bulletin 56, 1821-1824.
  17. Richmond, R.H. (2005) Ch. 23. Recovering populations and restoring ecosystems: restoration of coral reefs and related marine communities. Pp. 393-409 in Norse E.A. and Crowder L.B.(eds.) Marine Conservation Biology: the Science of Maintaining the Sea’s Biodiversity. Island Press, Washington DC. 470 pp.
  18. Spurgeon, J.P.G. and Lindahl, U. (2000) Economics of coral reef restoration. Pp. 125-136 in Cesar, H.S.J. (ed.) Collected Essays on the Economics of Coral Reefs. CORDIO, Sweden. ISBN 91-973959-0-0
  19. Spurgeon, J. (1998) The socio-economic costs and benefits of coastal habitat rehabilitation and creation. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 37, 373-382.
  20. Hughes, T.P., Baird, A.H., Bellwood, D.R., Card, M., Connolly, S.R., Folke, C., Grosberg, R., Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Jackson, J.B.C., Kleypas, J., Lough, J.M., Marshall, P., Nyström, M., Palumbi, S.R., Pandolfi, J.M., Rosen, B. and Roughgarden, J. (2003) Climate change, human impacts, and the resilience of coral reefs. Science, 301, 929-933.
  21. Whittingham, E., Campbell, J. and Townsley, P. (2003) Poverty and Reefs. DFID-IMM-IOC/UNESCO. 260 pp.

Chapter 2. Steps in planning a rehabilitation project


Box 2.1

  1. Marshall, P. and Schuttenberg, H. (2006) A Reef Manager's Guide to Coral Bleaching. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townsville, Australia. x + 163 pp.
    Also available from GBRMPA.
  2. Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Mumby, P.J., Hooten, A.J., Steneck, R.S., Greenfield, P., Gomez, E., Harvell, D.R., Sale, P.F., Edwards, A.J., Caldeira, K., Knowlton, N., Eakin, C.M., Iglesias-Prieto, R., Muthinga, N., Bradbury, R.H., Dubi, A. and Hatziolos, M.E. (2007) Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification. Science, 318, 1737-1742.
  3. Coral Reef Targeted Research Programme (2008) Climate change: It's now or never to save coral reefs. Advisory Paper, 2 (1), 1-2.
  4. Grimsditch, G.D. and Salm, R.V. (2006) Coral Reef Resilience and Resistance to Bleaching. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 52 pp.

Box 2.5

  1. Pandolfi, J.M., Jackson, J.B.C., Baron, N., Bradbury, R.H., Guzman, H.M., Hughes, T.P., Kappel, C.V., Micheli, F., Ogden, J.C., Possingham, H.P. and Sala, E. (2005) Are U.S. coral reefs on the slippery slope to slime? Science, 307 (5716), 1725-1726.
  2. IUCN (2004) Managing Marine Protected Areas: A Toolkit for the Western Indian Ocean. IUCN Eastern African Regional Programme, Nairobi, Kenya, xii + 172 pp.
    Also available on-line at WIOMSA with links to references in the theme sheets.

See also: Managing Marine and Coastal Protected Areas: A Toolkit for South Asia.


  1. Clark, J.R. (1996) Coastal Zone Management Handbook. CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton. 694 pp. ISBN 978-1-56670-092-4
  2. Golbuu, Y., Victor, S., Penland, L., Idip Jr, D., Emaurois, C., Okaji, K., Yukihora, H., Iwase, A. and van Woesik, R. (2007) Palau’s coral reefs show differential habitat recovery following the 1998-bleaching event. Coral Reefs, 26, 319-332.
  3. Raymundo, L.J., Maypa, A.P., Gomez, E.D. and Cadiz, P. (2007) Can dynamite-blasted reefs recover? A novel, low-tech approach to stimulating natural recovery in fish and coral populations. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 54, 1009-1019.
  4. Wilkinson, C. (2008) Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 2008. Global Coral reef Monitoring Network and Reef and Rainforest Research Centre, Townsville, Australia. 296 pp. ISSN 1447-6185
  5. Shearer, T.L., Porto, I. and Zubillaga, A.L. (2009) Restoration of coral populations in light of genetic diversity estimates. Coral Reefs, 28, 727-733.
  6. Baums, I.B. (2008) A restoration genetics guide for coral reef conservation. Molecular Ecology, 17, 2796-2811.
  7. Wabnitz, C., Taylor, M., Green, E. and Razak, T. (2003) From Ocean to Aquarium. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. 64 pp. ISBN 92-807-2363-4
  8. Hill, J. and Wilkinson, C. (2004) Methods for Ecological Monitoring of Coral Reefs: A Resource for Managers. Version 1. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Australia. vi +117 pp. ISBN 0 642 322 376.
  9. English, S., Wilkinson, C. and Baker, V. (1997) Survey Manual for Tropical Marine Resources. 2nd Edition. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Australia. 390 pp.

Chapter 3. Managing risks in reef restoration projects


Table 3.1


  1. Jaap, W.C. (2000) Coral reef restoration. Ecological Engineering, 15, 345-364.
  2. Hudson, J.H., Anderson, J., Franklin E.C., Schittone, J. and Stratton, A. (2007) M/V Wellwood Coral Reef Restoration Monitoring Report, Monitoring Events 2004-2006. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary Monroe County, Florida. Marine Sanctuaries Conservation Series NMSP-07-02. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Sanctuary Program, Silver Spring, MD. 50 pp.
  3. Precht, W.F., Aronson, R.B. and Swanson, D.W. (2001) Improving scientific decision making in the restoration of ship grounding sites on coral reefs. Bulletin of Marine Science, 69 (2), 1001-1012.
  4. Kojis, B.L. and Quinn N.J. (2001) The importance of regional differences in hard coral recruitment rates for determining the need for coral restoration. Bulletin of Marine Science, 69 (2), 967-974.
  5. Naughton, J. and Jokiel, P.L. (2001) Coral reef mitigation and restoration techniques employed in the Pacific islands. I. Overview. OCEANS, 2001. MTS/IEEE Conference and Exhibition, 1, 306-311.
  6. Shaish, L., Levy, G., Katzir, G. and Rinkevich, B. (2010) Coral reef restoration (Bolinao, Philippines) in the face of frequent natural catastrophes. Restoration Ecology, [online: doi: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2009.00647.x]
  7. Reid, C., Marshall, J., Logan, D. and Kleine, D. (2009) Coral Reefs and Climate Change. The Guide for Education and Awareness. CoralWatch, University of Queensland, Brisbane. 256 pp.
  8. Thom, R.M. (1997) System-development matrix for adaptive management of coastal ecosystem restoration projects. Ecological Engineering, 8, 219-232.
  9. Green, A.L. and Bellwood, D.R. (2009) Monitoring functional groups of herbivorous reef fishes as indicators of coral reef resilience – A practical guide for coral reef managers in the Asia-Pacific region. IUCN working group on Climate Change and Coral reefs. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 70 pp. ISBN 978-2-8317-1169-0.
  10. Jokiel, P.L. and Naughton, J. (2001) Coral reef mitigation and restoration techniques employed in the Pacific islands. II. Guidelines. OCEANS, 2001. MTS/IEEE Conference and Exhibition, 1, 313-316.
  11. Guest, J.R., Dizon, R.M., Edwards, A.J., Franco, C. and Gomez, E.D. (2009) How quickly do fragments of coral ‘self-attach’ after transplantation? Restoration Ecology, 17 (3) [doi: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2009.00562.x]
  12. Harvell, C.D., Jordán-Dahlgren, E., Merkel, S., Rosenberg, E., Raymundo, L., Smith, G.W., Weil, E. and Willis, B.L. (2007) Coral disease, environmental drivers and the balance between coral and microbial associates. Oceanography, 20 (1), 58-81.
  13. Bruno, J.F., Selig, E.R., Casey, K.S., Page, C.A., Willis, B.L., Harvell, C.D, Sweatman, H. and Mealndy, A.M. (2007) Thermal stress and coral cover as drivers of coral disease outbreaks. PLoS Biology, 5 (6), e124, 1220-1227.
  14. Raymundo, L.J., Couch, C.S. and Harvell, C.D. (Eds) (2008) Coral Disease Handbook. Guidelines for Assessment, Monitoring & Management. Coral Reef Targeted Research and Capacity for Management Program, St Lucia, Australia. 121 pp. ISBN 978-1-921317-01-9
  15. Bruckner, A.W. (2002). Priorities for effective management of coral diseases. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-OPR-22. 54 pp.
  16. McCook, L.J., Jompa, J. and Diaz-Pulido, G. (2001) Competition between corals and algae on coral reefs: a review of evidence and mechanisms. Coral Reefs, 19, 400-417.
  17. McCook, L.J. (1999) Macroalgae, nutrients and phase shifts on coral reefs: scientific issues and management consequences for the Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs, 18, 357-367.
  18. Mumby, P.J. and Steneck, R.S. (2008) Coral reef management and conservation in light of rapidly evolving ecological paradigms. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 23 (10), 555-563.
  19. Austin, J. and Atkinson, S. (2004) The design and testing of small, low-cost GPS-tracked surface drifters. Estuaries, 27 (6), 1026-1029.
  20. Green, A., Lokani, P., Sheppard, S., Almany, J., Keu, S., Aitsi, J., Warku Karvon, J., Hamilton, R. and Lipsett-Moore, G. (2007) Scientific Design of a Resilient Network of Marine Protected Areas. Kimbe Bay, West New Britain, Papua New Guinea. TNC Pacific Island Countries Report No. 2/07. x + 60 pp.

Chapter 4. Constructing and managing nurseries for asexual rearing of corals

  1. Epstein, N., Bak, R.P.M. and Rinkevich, B. (2003) Applying forest restoration principles to coral reef rehabilitation. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 13, 387-395.
  2. Rinkevich, B. (2006) Chapter 16. The coral gardening concept and the use of underwater nurseries: lessons learned from silvics and silviculture. Pp. 291-301 in Precht, W.F. (ed.) Coral Reef Restoration Handbook. CRC Press, Boca Raton. ISBN 0-8493-2073-9
  3. Bongiorni, L., Shafir, S., Angel, D. and Rinkevich, B. (2003) Survival, growth and reproduction of two hermatypic corals subjected to in situ fish farm nutrient enrichment. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 253, 137-144.
  4. Shaish, L., Levy, G., Gomez, E. and Rinkevich, B. (2008) Fixed and suspended coral nurseries in the Philippines: Establishing the first step in the “gardening concept” of reef restoration. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 358, 86-97.
  5. Shafir, S., van Rijn, J. and Rinkevich, B. (2006) A mid-water coral nursery. Proceedings of the 10th International Coral Reef Symposium, 1674-1679.
  6. Shafir, S. and Rinkevich, B. (2008) Chapter 9. The underwater silviculture approach for reef restoration: an emergent aquaculture theme. Pp. 279-295 in Schwartz, S.H. (ed.) Aquaculture Research Trends. Nova Science Publishers, New York. ISBN 978-1-60456-217-0
  7. Shafir, S., Abady, S. and Rinkevich, B. (2009) Improved sustainable maintenance for mid-water coral nursery by the application of an anti-fouling agent. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 368, 124-128.
  8. Epstein, N., Bak, R.P.M. and Rinkevich, B. (2001) Strategies for gardening denuded coral reef areas: the applicability of using different types of coral material for reef restoration. Restoration Ecology, 9 (4), 432-442.
  9. Shafir, S., van Rijn, J. and Rinkevich, B. (2006) Coral nubbins as source material for coral biological research: a prospectus. Aquaculture, 259, 444-448.
  10. Shafir, S. and Rinkevich, B. (2008) Chapter 33. Mariculture of coral colonies for the public aquarium sector. Pp. 315-318 in Leewis, R.J. and Janse M. (eds) Advances in Coral Husbandry in Public Aquariums. Public Aquarium Husbandry Series, vol. 2. Burgers’ Zoo, Arnhem, The Netherlands.
  11. Heeger, T. and Sotto, F. (eds) (2000) Coral Farming: A Tool for Reef Rehabilitation and Community Ecotourism. German Ministry of Environment (BMU), German Technical Cooperation and Tropical Ecology program (GTZ-TÖB), Philippines. 94 pp.
  12. Shafir, S., van Rijn, J. and Rinkevich, B. (2006) Steps in the construction of underwater coral nursery, an essential component in reef restoration acts. Marine Biology, 149, 679-687.
  13. Raymundo, L.J., Couch, C.S. and Harvell, C.D. (Eds) (2008) Coral Disease Handbook. Guidelines for Assessment, Monitoring & Management. Coral Reef Targeted Research and Capacity for Management Program, St Lucia, Australia. 121 pp. ISBN 978-1-921317-01-9
  14. Amar, K.O. and Rinkevich, B. (2007) A floating mid-water coral nursery as larval dispersion hub: testing and idea. Marine Biology, 151, 713-718.
  15. Bowden-Kerby, A. (2008) Restoration of threatened Acropora cervicornis corals: intraspecific variation as a factor in mortality, growth, and self-attachment. Proceedings of the 11th International Coral Reef Symposium, 1194-1198.
  16. Wabnitz, C., Taylor, M., Green, E. and Razak, T. (2003) From Ocean to Aquarium. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. 64 pp. ISBN 92-807-2363-4

Chapter 5. Rearing coral larvae for reef rehabilitation

  1. Hatta, M., Iwao, K., Taniguchi, H. and Omori, M. (2004) Restoration technology using sexual reproduction, in: Omori, M. and Fujiwara, S. (eds.) Manual for restoration and remediation of coral reefs, Nature Conservation Bureau, Ministry of the Environment, Japan
  2. Heyward, A.J., Smith, L.D., Rees, M. and Field, S.N. (2002) Enhancement of coral recruitment by in situ mass culture of coral larvae. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 230, 113-118
  3. Petersen, D. and Tollrian, R. (2001) Methods to enhance sexual recruitment for restoration of damaged reefs. Bulletin of Marine Science, 69, 989-1000
  4. Omori, M. (2008) Coral reefs at risk: the role of Japanese science and technology for restoration. Pp. 401-406 in Leewis R.J. and Janse, M. (eds) Advances in Coral Husbandry in Public Aquariums. Public Aquarium Husbandry Series Vol. 2. Burgers’ Zoo, Arnhem, the Netherlands.
  5. Hall and Hughes (1996) Reproductive strategies of modular organisms: comparative studies of reef-building corals. Ecology, 77, 950-963
  6. Baird, A.H., Guest, J.R., and Willis, B.L. (2009) Systematic and biogeographical patterns in the reproductive biology of scleractinian corals. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 40, 551-571.
  7. Veron, J.E.N. (2000) Corals of the World. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Australia.
  8. Fukami, H., Chen, C.A., Budd, A.F., Collins, A., Wallace, C., Chuang, Y.Y., Chen, C., Dai, C.F., Iwao, K., Sheppard, C. and Knowlton, N. (2008) Mitochondrial and nuclear genes suggest that stony corals are monophyletic but most families of stony corals are not (Order Scleractinia, Class Anthozoa, Phylum Cnidaria). PLoS ONE, 3, e3222, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003222
  9. Okamoto, M., Nojima, S., Fujiwara, S., and Furushima, Y. (2008) Development of ceramic settlement devices for coral reef restoration using in situ sexual reproduction of corals. Fisheries Science, 74, 1245-1253
  10. Okubo, N. and Motokawa, T. (2007) Embryogenesis in the reef-building coral Acropora spp. Zoological Science 24: 1169-1177
  11. Amar, K.O., Chadwick, N.E. and Rinkevich, B. (2007) Coral planulae as dispersion vehicles: biological properties of larvae released early and late in the season. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 350, 71-78
  12. Raimondi, P. T. and Morse, A. N. C. (2000) The consequences of complex larval behavior in a coral. Ecology, 81, 3193-3211.
  13. Omori, M., Aota, T., Watanuki, A., and Taniguchi, H. (2004) Development of coral reef restoration method by mass culture, transportation and settlement of coral larvae. In: Yukihira, H. (ed.) Proceedings of Palau Coral Reef Conference, PICRC Publication 04-001: 31-38.
  14. Omori, M., Shibata, S., Yokokawa, M., Aota, T., Watanuki, A. and Iwao, K. (2007) Survivorship and vertical distribution of coral embryos and planula larvae in floating rearing ponds. Galaxea, 8, 77-81.
  15. Omori, M. (2005) Success of mass culture of Acropora corals from egg to colony in open water. Coral Reefs, 24, 563.
  16. Omori, M., Iwao, K., Tamura, M. (2007) Growth of transplanted Acropora tenuis 2 years after egg culture. Coral Reefs, 27, 165.
  17. Morse, D.E., Hooker, N., Morse, A.N.C. and Jensen R.A. (1988) Control of larval metamorphosis and recruitment in sympatric agariciid corals. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 116, 193-217.
  18. Morse, A.N.C., Iwao, K., Baba, M., Shimoike, K., Hayashibara, T. and Omori, M. (1996) An ancient chemosensory mechanism brings new life to coral reefs. Biological Bulletin, 191, 149-154
  19. Heyward, A.J. and Negri, A.P. (1999) Natural inducers for coral larval metamorphosis. Coral Reefs 18, 273-279
  20. Omori, M. and Iwao, K. (2009) A novel sustrate (The “Coral Peg”) for deploying sexually propagated corals for reef restoration. Galaxea, 11, 39
  21. Raymundo, L.J. and Maypa, A.P. (2004) Getting bigger faster: mediation of size-specific mortality via fusion in juvenile coral transplants. Ecological Applications, 14, 281-295

Chapter 6. Methods of coral transplantation

  1. Adger, W.N., Hughes, T.P., Folke, C., Carpenter, S.R. and Rockström, J. (2005) Social-ecological resilience to coastal disasters. Science, 309, 1036-1039.
  2. Edwards, A.J. and Clark, S. (1998) Coral transplantation: a useful management tool or misguided meddling? Marine Pollution Bulletin, 37, 474-487.
  3. Rinkevich, B. (2008) Management of coral reefs: We have gone wrong when neglecting active reef restoration. Marine Pollution Bulletin 56, 1821-1824.
  4. Maragos, J.E. (1974) Coral transplantation: a method to create, preserve and manage coral reefs. Sea Grant Advisory Report UINHI-SEAGRANT-AR-74-03, CORMAR-14, 30 pp.
  5. Edwards, A.J. and Gomez, E.D. (2007). Reef Restoration Concepts and Guidelines: making sensible management choices in the face of uncertainty. Coral Reef Targeted Research & Capacity Building for Management Programme: St Lucia, Australia. iv + 38 pp. ISBN 978-1-921317-00-2.
  6. Kilbane, D., Graham, B., Mulcahy, R., Onder, A. and Pratt, M. (2010) Coral relocation for impact mitigation in Northern Qatar. Proceedings of the 11th International Coral Reef Symposium, 1248-1252.
  7. Seguin, F., Le Brun O., Hirst, R., Al-Thary, I., and Dutrieux, E. (2010) Large coral transplantation in Bal Haf (Yemen): an opportunity to save corals during the construction of a Liquefied Natural Gas plant using innovative techniques. Proceedings of the 11th International Coral Reef Symposium, 1267-1270.
  8. Van Treeck, P. and Schuhmacher, H. (1998) Mass diving tourism – a new dimension calls for new management approaches. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 37, 499-504.
  9. Highsmith, R.C. (1982) Reproduction by fragmentation in corals. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 7, 207-226.
  10. Epstein, N., Bak, R.P.M. and Rinkevich, B. (2001) Strategies for gardening denuded coral reef areas: the applicability of using different types of coral material for reef restoration. Restoration Ecology, 9 (4), 432-442.
  11. Shearer, T.L., Porto, I. and Zubillaga, A.L. (2009) Restoration of coral populations in light of genetic diversity estimates. Coral Reefs, 28, 727-733.
  12. Guest, J.R., Dizon, R.M., Edwards, A.J., Franco, C. and Gomez, E.D. (2009) How quickly do fragments of coral ‘self-attach’ after transplantation? Restoration Ecology, 17 (3) [doi: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2009.00562.x]
  13. Lindahl, U. (2003) Coral reef rehabilitation through transplantation of staghorn corals: effects of artificial stabilization and mechanical damages. Coral Reefs, 22, 217-223.
  14. Gomez, E.D. (2009) Community-based restoration: the Bolinao experience. Coral Reef Targeted Research & Capacity Building for Management Program, St Lucia, Australia. 4 pp.
  15. Dizon, R.M., Edwards, A.J. and Gomez, E.D. (2008) Comparison of three types of adhesives in attaching coral transplants to clam shell substrates. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 18, 1140-1148.
  16. Reef Ball Foundation (2008) A step-by-step guide for grassroots efforts to Reef Rehabilitation. Reef Ball Foundation, Inc., Athens, Georgia, USA. 133 pp.
  17. Heeger, T. and Sotto, F. (eds). (2000) Coral Farming: A Tool for Reef Rehabilitation and Community Ecotourism. German Ministry of Environment (BMU), German Technical Cooperation and Tropical Ecology program (GTZ-TÖB), Philippines. 94 pp.
  18. Hill, J. and Wilkinson, C. (2004) Methods for Ecological Monitoring of Coral Reefs: A Resource for Managers. Version 1. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Australia. vi +117 pp. ISBN 0 642 322 376.
  19. English, S., Wilkinson, C. and Baker, V. (1997) Survey Manual for Tropical Marine Resources. 2nd Edition. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Australia. 390 pp.

Chapter 7. Evaluating costs of restoration

  1. Spurgeon, J.P.G. (2001) Improving the economic effectiveness of coral reef restoration. Bulletin of Marine Science, 69, 1031-1045.
  2. Spurgeon, J. (1998) The socio-economic costs and benefits of coastal habitat rehabilitation and creation. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 37, 373-382.

Chapter 8. Learning lessons from past reef-rehabilitation projects

  1. Edwards, A.J. and Gomez, E.D. (2007) Reef Restoration Concepts and Guidelines: making sensible management choices in the face of uncertainty. Coral Reef Targeted Research & Capacity Building for Management Programme, St Lucia, Australia. iv + 38 pp. ISBN 978-1-921317-00-2
  2. Spurgeon, J.P.G. and Lindahl, U. (2000) Economics of coral reef restoration. Pp. 125-136 in Cesar, H.S.J. (ed.) Collected Essays on the Economics of Coral Reefs. CORDIO, Sweden. ISBN 91-973959-0-0
  3. Spurgeon, J. (1998) The socio-economic costs and benefits of coastal habitat rehabilitation and creation. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 37, 373-382.
  4. Spurgeon, J.P.G. (2001) Improving the economic effectiveness of coral reef restoration. Bulletin of Marine Science, 69, 1031-1045.
  5. Haisfield, K.M., Fox, H.E., Yen, S., Mangubhai, S. and Mous, P.J. (2010). An ounce of prevention: cost-effectiveness of coral reef rehabilitation relative to enforcement. Conservation Letters. (online)
  6. Harriott, V.J. and Fisk, D.A. (1995) Accelerating regeneration of hard corals: a manual for coral reef users and managers. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Technical Memorandum, 16, 42 pp.
  7. Heeger, T. and Sotto, F. (eds) (2000) Coral Farming: A Tool for Reef Rehabilitation and Community Ecotourism. German Ministry of Environment (BMU), German Technical Cooperation and Tropical Ecology program (GTZ-TÖB), Philippines. 94 pp.
  8. Gomez, E.D. (2009) Community-based restoration: the Bolinao experience. Coral Reef Targeted Research & Capacity Building for Management Program, St Lucia, Australia. 4 pp.

Case studies

1. Substrate stabilisation to promote recovery of reefs damaged by blast-fishing (Komodo National Park, Indonesia)

Fox, H., Mous, P., Pet, J., Muljadi, A. and Caldwell, R. (2005) Experimental assessment of coral reef rehabilitation following blast fishing. Conservation Biology, 19(1), 98-107

 

2. Transplantation of coral colonies to create new patch reefs on Funafuti Atoll (Tuvalu)

Fisk, D.A. (2007) Funafuti Atoll coral reef restoration project (Republic of Tuvalu) – Baseline report. CRISP, June 2007. 42 pp.

Fisk, D.A. and Job, S. (2008) Funafuti Atoll (Republic of Tuvalu) – Coral reef restoration project, 1-3-6-9 and 15 months post-trial – Monitoring report. CRISP, July 2008. 34 pp.

 

 3. Transplantation of coral fragments and colonies at tourist resorts using coated metal frames as a substrate (Maldives)

Guignard, C. and Le Berre, T. (2008). Staghorn corals transplantation, a method to increase axial polyps (AP) quantities of transplants using cicatrisation tissues high AP generation potential. Applications on Acropora microphtalma, Acropora muricata and Acropora pulchra. ICRS Oral Abstract 24-12.

Le Berre, T. and Guignard, C. (2008). The coral trays, a simple method to create large sustainable artificial reefs. ICRS Poster Abstract 24.1117.

See Reefscapers and Seamarc websites.

 

 4. Use of artificial substrates to enhance coral and fish recruitment (Phuket, Thailand)

Chansang, H, Thongtham, N., Satapoomin, U., Phongsuwan, N., Panchaiyaphum, P. and Mantachitra, V. (2008) Reef rehabilitation at Maiton Island: the prototype of rehabilitation by using artificial substrate in Thailand. ICRS Abstract 24-32. p. 222

Phongsuwan, N. (1991) Recolonization of a coral reef damaged by a storm on Phuket Island, Thailand. Phuket Marine Biological Center Research Bulletin, 56, 75-83

Thongtham, N. and Chansang, H. (1999) Influence of surface complexity on coral recruitment at Maiton Island, Phuket, Thailand. Phuket Marine Biological Center Special Publication, 20, 93-100

Thongtham, N. and Chansang, H. (2009) Transplantation of Porites lutea to rehabilitate degraded coral reef at Maiton Island, Phuket, Thailand. Proceedings of the 11th International Coral Reef Symposium, 1271-1274.

 

 

5. Transplantation of nursery reared corals to a degraded reef at Eilat (Israel)

Rinkevich, B. (2006) The coral gardening concept and the use of underwater nurseries; lesson learned from silvics and silviculture. Pp. 291-301 in Precht, W.F. (ed.) Coral Reef Restoration Handbook. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

Shafir, S., van Rijn, J., Rinkevich, B. (2006). A mid-water coral nursery. Proceedings of the 10th International Coral Reef Symposium. pp. 1674-1679

 

 6. Re-attachment of broken fragments of Acropora palmata following a ship grounding (Mona Island, Puerto Rico)

Bruckner, A.W. and Bruckner, R.J. (2001) Condition of restored Acropora palmata fragments off Mona Island, Puerto Rico, two years after the Fortuna Reefer ship grounding. Coral Reefs, 20, 235-243.

Bruckner, A.W. and Bruckner, R.J. (2006) Chapter 14. Restoration outcomes of the Fortuna Reefer grounding at Mona Island, Puerto Rico. Pp. 257-269 in Precht, W. (ed). Coral Reef Restoration Handbook. Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, Florida.

Bruckner, A.W. and Bruckner, R.J. (2006) Survivorship of restored Acropora palmata fragments over six years at the M/V Fortuna Reefer ship grounding site, Mona Island, Puerto Rico. Proceedings of 10th International Coral Reef Symposium, 1645-1650.

Bruckner, A.W., Bruckner, R.J. and Hill, R. (2009) Improving restoration approaches for Acropora palmata: Lessons from the Fortuna Reefer grounding in Puerto Rico. Proceedings of the 11th International Coral Reef Symposium, 1199-1203.

 

 7. Coral transplantation, using ceramic coral settlement devices, on reefs damaged by bleaching and Acanthaster planci (Sekisei Lagoon, Japan)

Fujiwara, S. and Katsukoshi, K. (2007) Coral reef restoration using larvae collector. Proceedings of ITMEMS 3, Global Problems, Local Solutions, Cozumel, Mexico, 16-20 October 2006 (online).

Normile, D. (2009) Bringing coral reefs back from the living dead. Science, 325, 559-561.

Okamoto, M., Nojima, S., Fujiwara, S. and Furushima, Y. (2008) Development of ceramic settlement devices for coral reef restoration using in situ sexual reproduction of corals. Fisheries Science, 74, 1245-1253.

Okamoto, M. and Nojima, S. (2004) Chapter 6. Development of underwater techniques for coral reef restoration, pp. 50-61 in Omori, M. and Fujiwara, S. (eds). Manual for restoration and remediation of coral reefs. Nature Conservation Bureau, Ministry of Environment, Japan.

 

8. Transplantation of corals to a traditional no-fishing area affected by coral bleaching (Moturiki Island, Fiji)

Job, S., Bowden-Kerby, A., Govan, H., Khan. Z. and Nainoca, F. (2005) Field Work Report on Restoration Work, Moturiki District, Fiji Islands. INFRA/FSPI. 31 pp.

Job, S., Fisk, D., Bowden-Kerby, A., Govan, H., Khan. Z. and Nainoca, F.(2006) Monitoring report on restoration work: 1, 3, 6, and 9 month surveys. Moturiki District, Fiji Islands. Coral Reef Initiative for the South Pacific. SPI INFRA/FSPI/PCDF. 33 pp.

 

9. Transplantation of coral fragments onto artificial reefs at a hurricane-damaged site (Cozumel, Mexico)

Álvarez-Filip, L. and Gil, I. (2006) Effects of Hurricanes Emily and Wilma on coral reefs in Cozumel, Mexico. Coral Reefs, 25, 583.

See also: ReefBall and Marine Park websites.

 

10. Rehabilitation of a reef damaged by blast-fishing by stabilizing rubble using plastic mesh (Negros Island, Philippines)

Raymundo, L.J., Maypa, A.P., Gomez, E.D. and Cadiz, P.L. (2007) Can dynamite-blasted reefs recover? A novel, low-tech approach to stimulating natural recovery in fish and coral populations. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 54, 1009-101

  
 
 
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